Brain Injury

Acquired Brain Injury

The term Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) is used to describe all types of brain injury that occur afterbirth. Brain Injury is defined as a loss of brain function that can be caused by accident or trauma, stroke, brain infection, drugs and alcohol or disease..

Effects can be temporary or permanent and range from mild injury, such as being momentarily stunned while playing football, to a very severe injury (such as a car crash). Brain injury is often called the hidden disability because the person may outwardly appear to be unaffected.

Brain injury affects different people in different ways. A person may have little change in their intellectual abilities because they can still draw on past memories and skills. However, they may be affected by specific cognitive impairments, physical changes and emotional changes including:

Emotional and behavioural

  • Depression and lack of emotional control
  • Irritability, anger and susceptibility to stress
  • Lack of initiative and motivation
  • Inappropriate behaviour and poor social skills
  • Self-centredness, dependency and lack of insight
  • Impulsivity


  • Memory problems
  • Poor concentration and attention
  • Slowed responses
  • Poor problem solving


  • Fatigue
  • Loss of taste and smell
  • Dizziness and balance problems
  • Epilepsy and seizures
  • Headaches
  • Visual problems
  • Chronic pain
  • Paralysis or movement disorders, particularly unilateral (affecting only one side of the body).